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Standard Benchmark Energy Utilization Index

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and several of its national laboratories have developed a series of benchmark models based on 16 different commercial building types (prototypical standard buildings).   Commercial building models are available for both new construction as well as existing buildings.  The existing building models are separated into pre-1980 construction and post-1980 construction.  The Energy Use Intensities (EUIs) in annual energy use per square foot (kBtu/ft2/yr) for  the new construction buildings in sixteen climate zone cities are shown in the table below.

These benchmarks are not intended to represent the existing stock of commercial buildings in any geographic area or climate zone. They are not intended to be targets to rate the energy performance of single existing or proposed buildings. The primary purpose of these benchmarks is to establish a quantitative definition of Standard 90.1 at a particular time in its development and to provide a reference from which future versions of the same standard are compared. These model files (version 1.2-4.0, updated October 31, 2009) comply with Standard 90.1-2004. These benchmark buildings provide consistency in modeling approaches and implementation across the commercial building sector.

All of the actual benchmark files for each of these building types can be viewed at the DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Building Technologies Program Net-Zero Energy Commercial Building Initiative web page for Commercial Building Benchmark Models: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/commercial_initiative/benchmark_models.html

 

 

DOE Commercial Building Benchmarks New Construction
Energy Use Intensities (EUIs) [kBtu/ft2/yr]
October 2009

City

Miami

Houston

Phoenix

Atlanta

Los Angeles

Las Vegas

San Francisco

Baltimore

Albuquerque

Seattle

Chicago

Denver

Minneapolis

Helena

Duluth

Fairbanks

Benchmark Weighted Avg

Climate Zone

1A

2A

2b

3A

3B

3B

3C

4A

4B

4C

5A

5B

6A

6B

7

8

 

Large Office

38

40

38

38

32

34

35

40

34

37

43

36

46

40

47

39

39

Medium Office

39

42

40

41

33

37

38

45

38

42

48

41

54

48

57

77

43

Small Office

44

44

43

41

33

39

35

46

41

42

51

45

57

51

61

83

45

Warehouse

30

19

19

18

14

18

15

21

20

18

24

23

29

27

33

52

21

Stand-alone Retail

62

63

60

61

44

56

50

72

61

65

81

69

93

83

104

145

69

Strip Mall

56

58

57

62

44

57

53

74

64

69

85

72

99

89

111

156

70

Primary School

57

57

55

55

46

52

51

61

54

54

65

58

75

66

79

113

60

Secondary School

56

57

55

57

42

54

50

68

58

61

76

64

89

77

97

141

66

Supermarket

158

167

159

170

153

158

166

184

168

181

195

179

208

197

223

266

179

Quick Service Restaurant

535

549

538

561

496

541

524

609

567

575

657

604

713

663

765

949

596

Full Service Restaurant

404

423

409

440

374

418

415

488

447

467

527

481

570

532

617

763

471

Hospital

145

147

138

142

137

135

142

148

127

139

148

130

153

137

155

185

145

Outpatient Facility

280

279

278

274

254

277

241

278

274

247

271

271

280

275

279

324

273

Small Hotel

71

71

69

71

62

68

64

75

70

69

80

74

87

80

92

112

73

Large Hotel

99

108

100

116

105

105

113

127

119

124

138

131

150

144

163

196

122

Mid-Rise Apartment

39

39

38

38

31

36

33

42

37

38

47

41

54

48

59

76

n/a